HISTORY

Prehistoric – 6000 to 118 BC – The Resclause, the source. A high water source collecting on the plateau of Sauveplaine, dominating the village. In 1975, Local historian Mr. Mailhé carried out a survey discovering the remains of 5 civilizations dating back nearly 7000 years. The water supply is essential, it is why Gabian is here, man settled around Resclauze and certain remains of their occupation have been revelead: shards of pottery, tiles, building elements, arrowheads, axes… The Resclauze, according to a good number of scientists and researchers, is an important one. Unfortunately, the local municipality appears un-interested by these excavations and decides to take no action on the discoveries. The site of the Resclauze still keeps its mysteries of the first inhabitants of Gabian.

The Roman time -118 BC until AD 476 – the Romans ruled, the land register, the roads, the vine growing. In Gabian, they built in the 1st century the aqueduct in order to feed water from the Source to Béziers 30 km the south west. There are no Gallo-Roman remains inside the village but there are traces of habitation within the commune. Amphoras, belts, coins, some burials and remains of a ceramics workshop have been discovered. Several indices lead to thinking that the Romans exploited also the famous Gabian source of Petroleum. It is known that the inhabitants knew for a long time of the medicinal virtues of this oil.

The Middle Ages – 476 to 1500 – the first mentions of the presence of a village dates from the 10th century. The village concentrated around its castle, protected by double ramparts. Bounding the river, a natural defence, another ditch was dug on the current avenue de la Gare and rue de l’Argenterie, encircling the village perfectly. The church as well as the bishops residence are included within the ramparts. Four openings (Faugères, Cassan, Fouzilhon and Pouzolles) gave access to the village through the rampart walls. In the 12th century, five water mills were built in the cascade between the Resclauze and Gabian village and remained active until the 19th century. During the 14th and 15th centuries Gabian did not escape the crises which befell the area: wars, plagues, famines, revolts, indeed Gabian become the haunt of robbers (Rabaud de Nisci 1363) who at the same time lived alongside the bishops. Between 1347 and 1361 the Black Death devastated the village, in spite of this, Gabian maintained four important annual fairs.

Ancien Régime – 1500 to 1800 – a period of great upheaval: it is the century of enlightenment but also that of Reform and Revolution. In the 16th century Gabian is an ecclesiastical lordship, the Bishop of Béziers is the lord of Gabian and were the target of protestant Huguenots. It is the time of the religious wars which lasted until the 17th century. Despite the regular processions between the village and the priory of Cassan the suffering and human losses, the epidemics, famines and plague continued to take their toll. At the beginning of 17th century the village continued to develop between the two rampart walls and the place Vieille becames the center of commerce and village life.

The modern day – With 19th century came the expansion of the wine industry and an increase in population involving new development within the village. In 1876, the population peaked at 1330 inhabitants. The exploitation of the oil continued to maintain the population. The village started to develop beyond its ramparts, which were in addition partly destroyed and the new outgrowth concentrated along the axes of road trade between Faugères and Pézenas. The place du commondant Terrisse took over as the new commercial center